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Contributor: Dave Rosenberg, MD Educational Pearls: In 1951, Operation Tat-Type began tattooing adults with their blood type in an effort to prepare for rapid transfusions in the time of the Cold War and the Korean War School children in northern Indiana and areas in Utah were tattooed with their blood type beginning in 1952 under the same operatio…
 
Contributor: Gretchen Hinson, MD Educational Pearls: Three episodes of ventricular tachycardia within 24 hours or two episodes back-to-back Treat with IV amiodarone and IV beta-blockers initially as well as IV lidocaine Correct underlying causes: IV magnesium for QT prolongation Replete potassium in hypokalemia Urgent revascularization in ischemia …
 
Contributor: Donald Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Opioids target kappa and NMDA receptors that can lead to central nervous system sensitization and therefore increased pain For patients with opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), oral ketamine (25-50 mg) can be used to treat their pain as it targets the NMDA receptor Other treatments is IV magnesium, …
 
Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Recent study looked at whether lactated ringers might be a better choice for fluid resuscitation in patients with DKA compared to normal saline Normal saline can cause a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis Time to resolution of acidosis was 4 hours less with lactated ringers compared to normal saline …
 
Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: About ½ of the patients in the ED present with some form of pain One study looked at patients presenting in pain and followed up two days after discharge to determine if their pain was addressed, asking if the patient received anything for pain and if the patient refused pain medication Non-analgesic…
 
Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Incidence 2.5-10 per million people occurring primarily in those with environmental allergens Typically occurs with mRNA vaccines in lipid nanoparticles (Moderna/Pfizer) rather than the adenovirus vaccine (J&J) Recommendation is to forego 2nd dose of the mRNA vaccine and instead get the adenovirus va…
 
Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: 1-3 cases of rabies per year in US with 55,000 people per year receiving rabies prophylaxis 90% of rabies cases come from wildlife, most commonly by racoons, bats, foxes, and skunks Because of rabies prophylaxis, domesticated pets almost never have rabies in the United States Rabies is typical transm…
 
Contributor: Alicia Oberle, MD Educational Pearls: Down Syndrome with Trisomy 21 have three copies of chromosome 21 Current birth rates are around 1 in 700 births Average life span 25 years in 1980, today the average life span is 60 years of age Patients with Down syndrome require additional therapies in the first 3 years due to developmental delay…
 
This week’s episode features a fascinating conversation with Dr. Nadia Tremonti, medical director for the pediatric palliative care program at Children’s Hospital of Michigan in Detroit. Dr. Tremonti was the featured physician in an independent short film Palliative and subsequent New York Times shorter excerpt Dying in your Mother’s Arms that expl…
 
Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Droperidol for sedation in agitated patients in the emergency department was studied compared to ziprasidone (Geodon) and lorazepam (Ativan) Double-blinded RCT showed droperidol was 65% effective to get patients to a good level of sedation in 15 minutes compared to ativan and geodon which were 25-35…
 
Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: Rhabdomyolysis occurs when high levels of myoglobin are released from dying muscle tissue into the blood Severe levels of myoglobin cause renal injury Causes include elevated temperature, excessive exercise, toxins, infection, muscle ischemia, crush injury, and prolonged immobilization Can also be…
 
Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Febrile Seizure clinical criteria 6 months - 5 years of age Rapid rise in temp No preexisting seizure disorder No other explanation for the seizure Nonfocal seizure lasting less than 15 minutes If the seizure does not meet the above criteria, a full workup needs to be completed Regardless of cause, t…
 
Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Acid and alkali ingestions have differing prognosis and immediate concerns Immediate issues can include superficial irritation, severe burns, esophageal perforation, and even airway compromise from edem Long term morbidity can include strictures Supportive care is typically all that can be provided …
 
Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Lyme disease gives a single expanding target lesion with central clearing called erythema chronicum migrans Erythema multiforme is another targetoid rash that presents with multiple target lesions Characterized into erythema minor and major based on severity but typically resolves More severe hyperse…
 
Contributor: Adam Barkin, MD Educational Pearls: Fever is an adaptive response to infection, but elderly and immunocompromised patients may not be able to mount a hyperthermic response in sepsis Patients with fever in sepsis end up receiving treatment earlier and have better outcomes Hypothermic patients with severe sepsis admitted to the ICU had a…
 
Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Survey study compared depression symptom prevalence in the United States at the beginning of COVID compared to data acquired by a similar survey for 2017-2018 and found it was three-fold higher Mild symptoms: 25% during pandemic; 16% before Moderate: 15% during pandemic; 6% before Moderately Severe …
 
Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD, JD Educational Pearls: Glucagon administered intravenously has a high rate of adverse events (nausea/vomiting) with very weak evidence NItroglycerin too has very limited evidence but a much better adverse event profile Mix 0.4 mg (1 sublingual tablet) nitro in 10 mL of water and administer orally Nothing beats upper…
 
Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: While it is rare to have a native hip dislocation, it is relatively common to dislocate a prosthetic hip The mechanism for dislocation is usually adduction, flexion, and internal rotation the hip which can occur when walking Arthroplasty in the setting of trauma or fracture, posterior approach during…
 
Contributor: Katie Sprinkel, MD Educational Pearls: Hereditary angioedema (HA) is an autosomal dominant bradykinin-mediated disease affecting the airway, skin or gastrointestinal tract and typically presents with swelling in the absence of pruritus HA episodes last 3-5 days, typically occur first in childhood or adolescence, and decrease in frequen…
 
Contributor: Katie Sprinkel, MD Educational Pearls: Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizures (PNES) are due to a psychogenic rather than an epileptic cause Despite common assumption, PNES are not always volitional 20-40% of those with PNES can also have true epileptic seizures 20-40% True diagnosis requires a video EEG Characteristics of PNES include: Wa…
 
High in the mountains of Colorado, a crew of unsuspecting docs stumble upon the EMS scene of a head-on collision after an arduous mountain bike ride. Trauma is a Journey is a four part rural trauma mini series that recounts this tale as this group springs into action to assist the EMS crews dealing with two critical patients. Elizabeth Esty hosts a…
 
High in the mountains of Colorado, a crew of unsuspecting docs stumble upon the EMS scene of a head-on collision after an arduous mountain bike ride. Trauma is a Journey is a four part rural trauma mini series that recounts this tale as this group springs into action to assist the EMS crews dealing with two critical patients. Elizabeth Esty hosts a…
 
High in the mountains of Colorado, a crew of unsuspecting docs stumble upon the EMS scene of a head-on collision after an arduous mountain bike ride. Trauma is a Journey is a four part rural trauma mini series that recounts this tale as this group springs into action to assist the EMS crews dealing with two critical patients. Elizabeth Esty hosts a…
 
High in the mountains of Colorado, a crew of unsuspecting docs stumble upon the EMS scene of a head-on collision after an arduous mountain bike ride. Trauma is a Journey is a four part rural trauma mini series that recounts this tale as this group springs into action to assist the EMS crews dealing with two critical patients. Elizabeth Esty hosts a…
 
Contributor: Samuel Killian, MD Educational Pearls: Anecdotally, when the computer reads a triage EKG as normal it is most often normal One study tested this theory by examining 855 computer-read EKGS (222 of which were read as normal) Two cardiologists reviewed these 222 normal EKGs and only found 13 EKGs that were slightly abnormal with nonspecif…
 
Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Ivermectin is an antiparasitic medication that has been used for a long time, but has sparked new interest in the past year as a potential treatment for COVID-19 In-vitro studies have shown it decreases how quickly COVID replicates and may make it less likely to adhere to cells Observational studies…
 
If you listen to this podcast, then you're probably familiar with our founder and frequent contributor, Dr. Donald Stader, and his fascination with the intersection of Emergency Medicine, opioids and Addiction Medicine. He is board certified in both specialties and is an active clinician in the ED that is constantly working to improve systems of be…
 
Contributor: Erik Verzemnieks, MD Educational Pearls: INR measures the clotting cascade including factors II, VII, IX, and X Coumadin most commonly elevates the INR, and it is used to monitor the anticoagulant’s effectiveness Liver failure can cause a similar elevation in the INR due to lack of synthesis of factors II, VII, IX, X An elevated INR in…
 
Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: When evaluating a thunderclap headache, don’t forget RCVS! RCVS: reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome Due to reversible spasms of cerebral blood vessels Can sometimes be seen on CTA or MRA, but often the imaging is normal and formal angiograms only occasionally show it It can be caused by m…
 
Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) Presents in the first few days of life (often in the NICU) to 3 weeks old Risk factors include prematurity, excess feeding, neonatal sepsis Pneumatosis Intestinalisis on abdominal xray caused by bacterial translocation into the bowel wall Treated with NG tube, bowel re…
 
Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Meta-analysis of 57,420 COVID+ patients evaluated mortality after intubation 45% mortality rate for all patients in the study 84.4% mortality in patients over 80 years old POSITIONED Trail assessed need for intubation in patients awake self-proning compared to not Risk of intubation and mortality wa…
 
Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Differential Diagnosis: non-accidental trauma, febrile seizure, meningitis, hyponatremia, epilepsy Convulsions with gastroenteritis is a known entity to cause seizures in infancy Predominantly occurs in ages 6 months to 3 years Occur with diarrheal episodes No electrolyte abnormalities associated wit…
 
Contributor: Nick Tsipis, MD Educational Pearls: Epinephrine: alpha-1, alpha-2, beta-1, and beta 2 agonist - used in cardiac arrest with positive effects on ROSC in prehospital and peri-hopsital setting Norepinephrine: alpha-1 and beta-1 agonist - used in septic shock to increase cardiac output and peripheral vasoconstriction Phenylephrine: alpha-1…
 
Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Small capsule pacemaker (2.5 cm, 1 ml volume) resides in the heart without any associated wires or leads like a traditional pacemaker The new version has a 6 year battery life, after which it can be deactivated and a traditional pacemaker put in place Cost is around 2-4 times that of a traditional pa…
 
Contributor: Peter Bakes , MD Educational Pearls: Pediatric Fever + Rash Differential: scarlet fever, measles, rubella, chicken pox, fifth’s disease, HHV-6, adenovirus, anaphylaxis, Kawasaki’s disease Kawasaki’s is diagnosed clinically with prolonged fever (>7 days fever in 5 days of fever >6 months with 4 of the following: Strawberry tongue/fissur…
 
Contributor: Rachael Duncan, PharmD BCPS Educational Pearls: According to the Department of Public Health and Environment who puts out a weekly report on the influenza virus in Colorado, there appears to be less influenza in Colorado than previous years A milder influenza outbreak is likely due to mask wearing and social distancing practices There …
 
This episode of Mental Health Monthly we will be discussing drugs screens in the Emergency Department with Dr. Justin Romano and Eddie Carillo. Dr. Justin Romano is a current psychiatry resident and Eddie Carillo is a licensed mental health therapist. Check out their podcast Millennial Mental Health Channel on all major podcast platforms. Shout out…
 
Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Retrospective review of 5,021 patients over 65 with 2 or more rib fractures recently published 3577 (78 %) were admitted to non-ICU setting 1.1% of these patients had unexpected intubation or ICU transfer Findings raise questions regarding current guidelines for ICU admission in elderly patients wit…
 
Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Pyogenic liver abscesses can be caused by Intra-abdominal infection progressing to peritonitis which then drains into liver Bacteremia leading to hematogenous spead and seeding Local biliary infection with contiguous spread Patients typically present with signs of sepsis or septic shock and the absc…
 
Contributor: Katie Sprinkel, MD Educational Pearls: Commonly known as “acid,” LSD is seeing a resurgence in the population as a recreational hallucination Onset is about 30 minutes with peak pharmacologic effects at 2-4 hours, the drug’s half life is 3 hours resulting in some prolonged effects While there is not an significant addictive component o…
 
Contributor: Sam Killian, MD Educational Pearls: iliac vein compression syndrome is also called May-Thurner Syndrome The left leg more frequently develops deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in part because about 1/4 of the population has May-Thurner May-Thurner syndrome anatomic variant results in a right iliac artery compresses the left iliac vein again…
 
Educational Pearls: Atropine has been shown to reduce hypersalivation as well as nausea and vomiting induced by ketamine sedation. Atropine can increase the occurrence of a transient rash, as well as tachycardia. There are no guidelines that recommend for or against atropine use in pediatric patients undergoing ketamine induced sedation. Ultimately…
 
Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Two main differentials for wide complex tachycardia (WCT) include ventricular tachycardia (most common) and supraventricular tachycardia with aberrancy Brugada syndrome and Wolff-Parkinson White are potential causes Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia is a rare congenital cause of WCT that sho…
 
Contributor: Dylan Luyten, MD Educational Pearls: D10 may be a better alternative to D50 in correcting hypoglycemia Risks of D50: Can cause extravasation injury Risk of rebound hypoglycemia D10 does not have the same risks and has no significant difference in reversal time of hypoglycemia compared to D50 References Kiefer MV, Gene Hern H, Alter HJ,…
 
Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Pathologic bone fractures occur due to weakened bones from chronic disease and with less force when compared to non-pathologic fractures Can be due to bone tumors, bone cysts, infections (osteomyelitis), osteogenesis imperfecta, Paget's disease of bone, and multiple myeloma Have moth bitten or lytic …
 
Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Bilirubin is natural breakdown product of red blood cells but can be neurotoxic if levels become too high Fetal red blood cells are fragile and break down easier, leading to higher bilirubin levels in neonates Immature livers and increased intestinal absorption from sterile bowels also contribute to …
 
Contributor: Cheyenne Bean, PharmD Educational Pearls: Bactrim (TMP-SMX) is a sulfa antibiotic used for a number of infections but can have untoward effects. Hypoglycemia can be induced by the sulfa component of Bactrim, which binds receptors in the pancreas causing insulin to be secreted, dropping blood sugar levels. Oral diabetic medications, spe…
 
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