157. Case Report: A Case of Complete Heart Block In A Young Adult – Stanford University

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CardioNerds (Amit Goyal and Daniel Ambinder), join CardioNerds FIT Ambassador, Dr. Pablo Sanchez, and his co-fellows, Dr. Jimmy Tooley and Dr. Maggie Ning from Stanford University for an important case discussion about an An otherwise healthy young adult presented with fatigue and was found to be in complete heart block due to sarcoidosis. Dr. Ronald Witteles, (Stanford University Program Director for the Stanford Internal Medicine residency program and advanced heart failure specialist who's particular expertise focuses in the treatment of amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, and cardio-oncology) provides the E-CPR for this episode. Claim free CME just for enjoying this episode! Disclosures: Dr. Witteles reports that he has served as an advisor for Pfizer, Alnylam, Eidos, Regerenon Pharmaceuticals, Janssen, and IonisJump to: Patient summary - Case teaching - References CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Patient Summary - Notes - Complete Heart Block due to Sarcoidosis An otherwise healthy young adult presented with fatigue and was found to be in complete heart block. Imaging studies were suspicious for cardiac and pulmonary sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis was confirmed on biopsy. Given the high risk of future cardiac events our patient underwent a dual chamber ICD implantation. He was started on prednisone and methotrexate for immunosuppression. Case Media - Click to enlarge Episode Teaching - Notes - Complete Heart Block due to Sarcoidosis Pearls - Complete Notes - Complete Heart Block due to Sarcoidosis Cardiac sarcoidosis is a disease characterized by noncaseating granulomas involving the heart that can exist alone or together with other organ system involvementDepending on the sites of cardiac involvement it can present as conduction system disease, ventricular arrhythmia, or heart failureCardiac sarcoidosis should be considered in patients with history of sarcoidosis involving other organ systems who develop left ventricular dysfunction, wall motion abnormalities, or arrhythmiasCardiac sarcoidosis should be considered in patients who present with otherwise unexplained heart block or ventricular tachycardia (VT) It is generally recommended that patients with cardiac sarcoidosis with an indication for pacemaker receive an ICD at time of implantation regardless of history of VT Notes - Complete Heart Block due to Sarcoidosis 1. What is Sarcoidosis? Sarcoidosis is a rare disorder of inflammation characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas in affected tissues. It most commonly involves the pulmonary system, but other organ systems can be involved including the heart. Sarcoidosis typically affects young adults, and its etiology is still uncertain. 2. What is Cardiac Sarcoidosis and how is it diagnosed? Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) can occur alone or with systemic disease and depending on the cardiac sites of involvement, can present as conduction system disease, ventricular arrhythmia, heart failure, or sudden cardiac death. 3. How is Cardiac Sarcoidosis diagnosed? Diagnosis of CS is challenging as the gold standard is endomyocardial biopsy (EMB), though sensitivity of EMB is low given the often-patchy tissue involvement. Societal guidelines on the diagnosis of CS require either a positive EMB or biopsy-confirmed extracardiac sarcoidosis with evidence of secondary criteria to suggest cardiac involvement - unexplained VT, high grade AV block, third degree AV block, LVEF <40%, or characteristic imaging finding on cardiac MRI and cardiac PET. The diagnosis of CS must be considered in all patients with a diagnosis of extra cardiac sarcoidosis who develop symptoms to suggest cardiac involvement. Additionally, screening for CS should be done in all patients <60 years of a...

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